Ceramic waste


Made in

Composite 96 Recycled 118 Bentonite 2 Ceramic waste 3 Clay 14 Paper 14

Ceramic waste

Photos: Tessa Spaaij, Coudre Studio

Remake/Reprint Ceramics

In 2017, Hanneke de Leeuw started investigating the possibilities of using broken and discarded pieces of ceramics, which otherwise end up in waste containers, as a resource for making new ceramics.

There are a number of negative environmental aspects associated with the production of ceramics that require a solution for the future. First, there is the development of porcelain quarries, problematic both in terms of their impact on the landscape and the amount of waste they generate.

In conjunction to this, a lot of energy is used in the production of ceramics when firing kilns during production and the manufacturing process also generates a lot of waste (from both clay and glaze). Moreover, at the end of their life, ceramic products are simply sent back to the waste incinerator. While the interest in ceramics within the design sector is still at a low ebb, people in Japan are already experimenting with recycling, focusing only on porcelain clay and with the aim of obtaining an end product that is identical to the non-recycled version. For the time being, the Japanese experiments are not a resounding success and this method was not applied in Europe.

In 2017, Hanneke de Leeuw visited two Japanese research institutes and started collaborations with Cor Unum (a renowned ceramics atelier in the Netherlands) and the Technical University in Delft. She started testing with different types of clay (porcelain, stoneware and terracotta) and different types of recycled material. The first tests resulted in a series of plates, that were shown in Milan in 2018. The presentation showed what recycled content means for the tactility and outlook of the ceramic designs.

The designer did not want to make plates that were identical to the non-recycled version, as they do in Japan, but show the added value of recycling, from an environmental as well as from an aesthetic point of view.

This project consists of different phases, the first phase focused on developing tableware. The plates presented in Milan contained 10% of recycled material. The first set of these porcelain plates was sold to 2 Michelin star chef Soenil Bahadoer of restaurant De Lindehof in Nuenen (The Netherlands).

In 2019 further tests were done, which led to a series of stoneware vases that contained around 20% of recycled material. Tests with higher percentages of recycled content were carried out, as well as tests with smaller and bigger types of granulations, specific colours as well as re-recycling.

In 2020, Hanneke de Leeuw was one of the winners of the WORTH Partnership project. The project led to a series of lamps with around 30% recycled material, called ‘Reprint Ceramics’. This was a series of 3D printed lamps, parametrically designed, made from recycled ceramics. It combines the 3D clay printing technique by Coudre Studio (Spain) with the methodology for upcycling discarded household ceramics by Hanneke de Leeuw.

By using post-industrial and post-consumer ceramic waste as a resource for making new high-quality products, the project shows that the use of waste can reduce supply chain costs, decrease the use of raw materials and improve the ecological footprint.

Additional information

Old and discarded pieces of ceramics are ground to powder and mixed with virgin clay. After mixing, water, bentonite, sodium silicate and paper fibres may be added when necessary.

Sodium silicate needs to be added in order to 3D print porcelain instead of clay, please note that this ingredient does contain chemicals.

Information submitted by the maker and edited by the Future Materials Bank.


Clay, ceramic waste, water, bentonite, paper fibres


Cor Unum, TU Delft, Coudre Studio for the 3D printing

Physical samples

0049-1, 0049-2, 0049-3, 0049-4, 0049-5
Accessible to visitors of the Future Materials Lab